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群書治要360中英對照 | 夫富民者

夫(fú/ㄈㄨ/)富民者,以農桑為本,以游業①為末;百工者,以致用為本,以巧飾為末;商賈者,以通貨為本,以鬻(yù/ㄩ\)奇②為末。三者守本離末,則民富;離本守末,則民貧;貧則阨(…

夫(fú/ㄈㄨ/)富民者,以農桑為本,以游業①為末;百工者,以致用為本,以巧飾為末;商賈者,以通貨為本,以鬻(yù/ㄩ\)奇②為末。三者守本離末,則民富;離本守末,則民貧;貧則阨(è/ㄜ\)③而忘善,富則樂而可教。教訓者,以道義為本,以巧辨為末;辭語者,以信順④為本,以詭麗⑤為末;列士⑥者,以孝悌為本,以交游⑦為末;孝悌以致養⑧為本,以華觀為末;人臣者,以忠正為本,以媚愛⑨為末。五者守本離末,則仁義興;離本守末,則道德崩⑩。(卷四十四 潛夫論)

(注釋)①游業:流動的職業。如行商等。②鬻奇:出售稀見貨物。③阨:困厄;困窘。④信順:真實而通達。⑤詭麗:奇異華麗。⑥列士:古時上士、中士和下士的統稱。⑦交游:交際,結交朋友。⑧ 致養:奉養親老。⑨媚愛:取悅,取寵。⑩崩:敗壞。

(白話)要使百姓富裕,以農事生產為本,以流動的職業為末;各種工藝,以實用為本,以雕琢裝飾為末;買賣經商,以流通貨物為本,以出售珍奇貨物來謀利為末。這三者若能守住根本、遠離枝末,百姓就會富裕;如果遠離根本而守住枝末,百姓就會貧窮;百姓貧窮就會陷入困境而無心行善,百姓富裕就會安樂而容易教化。教育訓導,以道德仁義為本,以巧言善辯為末;言論話語,以誠信順理為本,以奇異華麗為末;知識分子,以孝順父母、友愛兄弟為本,以交友應酬為末;落實孝悌,以盡心奉養為本,以圖表面、講排場為末;身為部屬,以忠誠正直為本,以諂媚討好為末。這五者讓人們守住根本、遠離枝末,仁義的風氣就會興盛;假如遠離根本而守住枝末,道德就會敗壞。

To increase wealth for the people, first and foremost base the economy on farming and textile production above miscellaneous economic activities. To utilize the skills of craftsmen properly, place the priority on practical projects above decorative works. In business transactions, place proper distribution of goods to the populace above selling exotic items. People will become wealthier if these three principles are followed. But if the least important became the most important, people will become poorer, and when they become poorer they will forsake proper behavior as opposed to what they would do if they were richer. Likewise, in the field of education, imparting lessons that enable people to become moral individuals is more important than training people to become artful debaters. In the use of language, being truthful and sensible is more important than the ability to use flowery and cunning descriptions. For a learned individual, being filial and respectful toward his parents and elders is more important than entertaining his friends. In the practice of filial piety, what is important is to perform one’s duties with utmost reverence rather than lavishly displaying pomp and ceremony. For a subordinate, being loyal to his superior is more important than being a flatterer. If these five principles are followed, the practice of benevolence and righteousness will flourish. Abandoning what is important and pursuing what is less important will lead to the decline of morality in society. Scroll 44: Qian Fu Lun

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