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群書治要360中英對照 | 昔者成王,幼在襁褓之中,召公為大保,周公為太傅,太公為太師

昔者成王,幼在襁(qiǎng/ㄑㄧㄤ\/)褓(bǎo/ㄅㄠ\/)①之中,召(shào/ㄕㄠ\)公為大(tài/ㄊㄞ\)保,周公為太傅,太公為太師。保保其身體;傅傅之德義;師導之教訓…


昔者成王,幼在襁(qiǎng/ㄑㄧㄤ\/)褓(bǎo/ㄅㄠ\/)①之中,召(shào/ㄕㄠ\)公為大(tài/ㄊㄞ\)保,周公為太傅,太公為太師。保保其身體;傅傅之德義;師導之教訓:此三公職也。于是為置三少,少保少傅少師,是與太子宴者也。故乃孩提有識,三公三少,明孝仁禮義,以導習之,逐去邪人,不使見惡行。于是皆選天下之端士,孝悌博聞有道術者,以衛翼②之,使與太子居處出入。故太子乃生而見正事,聞正言,行正道,左右前后皆正人。……孔子曰:“少成若天性,習貫③如自然。”(卷十六 漢書四)

(注釋)①襁褓:背負嬰兒用的寬布帶和包裹嬰兒的被子。②衛翼:猶輔佐。③貫:亦作“慣”。

(白話)從前周成王年幼在襁褓中,便請來召公做太保,周公做太傅,太公做太師。保,是保護太子的身體;傅,是以道德仁義來教導他;師,是以圣賢教誨來啟發他,這就是三公的職責。于是又設立“三少”,少保、少傅、少師,這是與太子生活在一起的人。所以當太子幼年懂事時,三公、三少就講明孝、仁、禮、義的道理,引導他落實,并驅逐奸邪之人,不讓太子見到不好的行為。因此選出天下品行端正的君子,以及孝順友悌、見聞廣博、有學問道德的人,保護輔助他,讓他們陪伴太子朝夕相處、同出同入。所以當太子生下來,所見的都是正事,所聽的都是正言,所行的都是正道,在他左右前后都是正人君子。……孔子說:“從小養成的品德就像天性一樣,自然而然會變成習慣。”

When King Cheng of Zhou dynasty was an infant, Zhao Gong was the crown prince’s Tai-bao, whose duty was to safeguard the physical wellness of the crown prince. Zhou Gong, was his Tai-fu, whose duty was to guide the crown prince with moral and ethical codes of conduct. And Tai Gong, who was his Tai-shi, was responsible for inspiring the crown prince with the wisdom of the sages. In addition to the Three Venerated Elders (San-gong) and their duties, another Three Supporting Elders (San-shou), namely–Shao-bao, Shao-fu and Shao-shi were established to accompany the crown prince in his learning on a daily basis. Thus, ever since the young prince could comprehend teachings, the three venerated elders and the three supporting elders had imparted lessons on the moral principles of filial piety, benevolence, propriety and righteousness to the crown prince, guiding him to implement these principles. Moreover, all deviant characters were banished from the vicinity of the prince so that he would not be corrupted by deviant behavior. Only individuals who were filial and respectful of kinship, gentlemen. …Confucius said:”Lessons learned from a young age will become so natural to an individual that they become natural habits.” knowledgeable and virtuous were chosen to live with the prince on a daily basis. Therefore, from the moment that the crown prince was born, all that he saw was proper, all that he heard was proper, and all that he practiced was proper because all the people by his side were righteous. Scroll 16: Han Shu, Vol.4

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